C# & .NET
With the introduction of the .NET framework, Microsoft included a new language called C# (pronounced C Sharp). C# is designed to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language, borrowing key concepts from several other languages, most notably Java.
C# could theoretically be compiled to machine code, but in real life, it’s always used in combination with the .NET framework. Therefore, applications written in C#, requires the .NET framework to be installed on the computer running the application. While the .NET framework makes it possible to use a wide range of languages, C# is sometimes referred to as THE .NET language, perhaps because it was designed together with the framework.
C# is an Object Oriented language and does not offer global variables or functions. Everything is wrapped in classes, even simple types like int and string, which inherits from the System.Object class.